• Degeneración Macular Asociada a la Edad (DMAE)

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

    AMD it is a pathology that affects the central vision. It progresses as the patient’s age increases and can lead to blindness if not treated early.

  • Paciente con posible endotropía asociaca a la edad junto a su nieta

    Age-related distance esotropia

    Age-related distance esotropia is the loss of paralelism between the shafts of the eyes and the target fixation, produced in adults over 65 years old. Patients suffering from it involuntarily deviate one or both eyes towards the nose.

  • аллергический конъюнктивит

    Allergic conjunctivitis

    Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by a reaction to an allergen (any substance that produces an allergic reaction).

  • Amblyopia or lazy eye syndrome

    Amblyopia or lazy eye is a vision alteration caused by an asymmetry in the position of the eyes. It usually develops at a very early age and is the leading cause of childhood vision loss.

  • astigmatismus


    Astigmatism is a defect in the curvature of the cornea or in the shape of the lens of the eye that can be solved with glasses or with refractive surgery.

  • Eye with blepharitis - ICR

    Blepharitis. What is it and how is it treated?

    Blepharitis is an inflammation that occurs at the edge of the eyelids causing redness, peeling and swelling of the eyelids. It is usually a chronic but it does not usually cause permanent damage.

  • Dr. Graell realiza una visita previa a una cirugía de blefaroplastia

    Blepharoplasty or eyelid surgery

    Blepharoplasty is a minimally invasive operation that removes excess skin, and sometimes fat, from the eyelids. With this surgery it is possible to improve the tired aspect of the face.

  • Cataratas


    Thanks to the latest innovations in intraocular lenses, we can regain the vision lost due to cataracts and reduce the dependency on glasses at the same time.

  • Central serous chorioretinopathy

    Central serous chorioretinopathy is the fourth retinal disease that threats our vision, behind age-related macular degeneration, vascular occlusions or diabetic macular edema.

  • Chalation. What is it and how is it treated?

    A chalation or chalazion is a benign pump or lump in the eyelid that does not cause pain and appears when secretions from the Meibomian glands accumulate due to a blockage in the drainage of the glands.

  • Niño en clase con miopía infantil

    Childhood myopia

    Childhood myopia is the refractive defect that causes blurred vision for objects that are far away, affecting children. It is usually treated with prescription glasses.

  • Coats Disease

    Coats disease is characterized by
    a unilateral and anomalous development of the retina’s blood vessels. It is usually diagnosed in male patients during the first two decacdes of the patient’s life.

  • Conjunctivitis

    Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the inner part of the eyelids in the anterior part of the eye, touching the cornea.

  • Illustration depicting corneal dystrophies.

    Corneal Dystrophies

    Corneal dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders most often found in the cornea (the clear front surface of the eye that lies directly in front of the iris and pupil).

  • Corneal Ulcer

    A corneal ulcer is an open wound on the cornea, the structure that covers the iris and the pupil in a similar way to the crystal covers a watch face.

  • Illustration representing some corneal injuries

    Corneal injuries: lacerations and abrasions

    A corneal laceration is a cut in the cornea, usually caused by the contact of some sharp object with the eye, whereas a corneal abrasion is a scratch or scrape on the cornea usually superficial and does not leave a scar.

  • Illustration representing dacryocystitis. An eye and the lacrimal sac are depicted.


    Dacryocystitis is an inflammation usually caused by a lachrymal sac infection, arising from an obstruction of the tear duct. It can cause symptoms such as pain, redness and edema.

  • Diabetic retinopathy

    Diabetic retinopathy is a vascular disease secondary to diabetes. Diabetes damages the small blood vessels of the retina due to the metabolic decompensation that it causes.

  • double vision

    Double vision or diplopia

    Diplopia is a visual alteration consisting in the perception of double vision. This vision disturbance can be horizontal, vertical or oblique depending on how the images appear.

  • Ojo seco o queratconjuntivitis seca

    Dry eye syndrome or keratoconjunctivitis sicca

    Dryness, inconvenience, stinging or a feeling of sand in the eye could be symptoms of dry eye syndrome and require personalized treatment.

  • Ectropión


    An ectropion is an eyelid malposition consisting in the outward folding of the eyelid so it does not sufficiently rest on the eye, thus leaving it exposed and unprotected.

  • Endoftalmitis

    Endoftalmitis is the presence of intraocular bacteria or fungi that causes the infection of intraocular fluids. Treatment has to bee urgent wiith the administration of antibiotics or antifungals.

  • entropion

    Entropion. What is it and how is it treated?

    What is an entropion? An entropion is the inward folding of the eyelid, that makes the eyelashes rub against the cornea, thus leading to eye irritation and redness.

  • Eye cosmetic treatments

    Eye cosmetic treatments are procedures from an ophthalmological specialization focused on correcting and improving the looks of the patients’ gaze.

  • Párpado entreabierto con posible tumor orbitario

    Eyelid and orbital tumors

    Eyelid tumors are those that appear in the eyelids in the form of small injuries, pimples or lumps that usually don’t cause symptoms, whereas orbital tumors are located in the orbital cavity that surrounds the eye.

  • Una mujer muestra sus párpados cerrados para ilustrar las malposiciones palpebrales

    Eyelid malpositions

    Eyelid malpositions are defects in eyelid position that usually appear later in life. An eyelid rolled inward leads to an entropion, while an eyelid rolled outward causes an ectropion.

  • Eyelid tremors: myokymia and blepharospasm

    Eyelid tremors are very common amongst the population. Myokymias are benign and usually temporary, whereas blepharosmasms should be looked into, diagnosed and treated by neuroophthalmologists.

  • Glaucoma


    Glaucoma entails a loss of the vision field, usually asymptomatic until later stages of the disease. If it is not treated properly, it can induce blindness.

  • High myopia

    We speak of high myopia when a patient has more than 6 diopters. This type of myopia is associated with even longer eyes, that is, with a very long axial length.

  • Una niña con hipermetropía infantil  sujeta una lupa frente a su ojo

    Hyperopia in children

    Hyperopia, hypermetropia or farsightedness in children appears as a refractive defect whereby the image is focused behind the retina and vision is blurred.

  • Landscape as seen with hyperopia

    Hyperopia or Hypermetropia

    Hyperopia is a defect in the eye’s refraction that occurs when images are focused behind the retina and not directly on it, resulting in blurred or unclear vision at intermediate and close distances.

  • Hypertensive retinopathy

    Hypertensive retinopathy is a condition in which the blood vessels in the eye are damaged as a result of high blood pressure. If left untreated, this can seriously threaten vision.

  • Illustration representing infectious conjunctivitis.

    Infectious conjunctivitis

    Infectious conjunctivitis is caused by an infectious agent (bacteria or virus) and usually manifests itself acutely. Symptoms and treatment may vary for different kinds of conjunctivitis.

  • Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) for dry eye

    Intense pulsed light is an innovative treatment for dry eye syndrome. It is indicated in cases of Meibomian gland disorders.

  • IPL for aesthetic treatments

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) for aesthetic treatments

    IPL treatment can individually address a variety of skin imperfections and significantly improve its appearance.

  • Ювенильная макулярная дистрофия

    Juvenile macular degeneration

    Macular degenerations are retinal diseases of genetic origin that cause an early degeneration of the macula that affect adults, young people and children.

  • Eye with keratoconus, illustration.


    Keratoconus appears when the corneal tissue deteriorates, modifying its usual spherical shape by a cone shape. As the shape of the cornea is altered, the vision becomes distorted.

  • Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is the most common hereditary optic neuropathy and causes sudden vision loss mostly among men aged 15 to 25 years old.

  • Ilustración representativa de membrana epirretiniana. Esquema de las partes internas del ojo cuando se sufre esta afección.

    Macular epiretinal membrane

    Macular epiretinal membrane causes a slow and progressive visual loss lasting months or years, and affecting one or both eyes. Generally, it causes image distortion, and undulation of straight lines.

  • Macular hole

    A macular hole causes loss of central vision and distortion in the images and is manifested with undulation of straight lines. There are several surgical procedures that can be performed to treat it.

  • Myopia

    Myopia (near-sightedness or short-sightedness) is a visual defect suffered by myopic or short-sighted people, who can clearly see close objects, but can’t properly focus far distance ones.

  • Neurooftalmologia ICR

    Neuro-Ophthalmological diseases

    Neuro-ophthalmology treats diseases that, without being properly of the eyes, manifest themselves with alterations of vision, eye movement or pupils. The patient sees badly but the cause is in the brain, optic nerve or elsewhere in the body.

  • Occlusions or obstructions of veins and arteries in the retina

    Occlusions or obstructions of veins and arteries in the retina are impediments of the blood flow that cause ischemia or flooding. It can cause a painless vision loss to either the entire visual field or only a part of it.

  • neuritis óptica

    Optic neuritis in children and adults

    Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optical nerve. This inflammation may be located at the nerve’s front side (papillitis) or at the rear side of it (retrobulbar optic neuritis).

  • Orbital cellulitis

    Orbital cellulitis is a serious infection of the orbit tissues and commonly affects children. It is very important to know the symptoms and treat them properly.

  • Ilustración representativa de la ptosis. Esquema con la forma que adquiere el ojo con ptosis.

    Palpebral ptosis or drooping eyelid

    Palpebral ptosis is the dropping of the upper eyelid and is one of the most common oculoplastic problems. This anomalous position is usually caused by a dysfunction of the lifting muscle.

  • child with cataract | ICR

    Pediatric cataracts

    Both the pediatrict cataract and the one that derives from aging, consist of a clounding of the natural crystalline lens of the eye, which can cause blurred vision and even blindness.

  • Presbicia o vista cansada


    Difficulty to focus in short distances usually begins to appear at 40-45 years old and can be corrected through refractive surgery.



    A pterygium is a red and white abnormal growth of the conjunctiva that invades the cornea, most frequently on the side which is closer to the nose, although it can also appear on the external side of the eye, and in both eyes.

  • cirurgia refractiva

    Refractive surgery: correction of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism or presbyopia

    Refractive surgery aims to correct refractive errors, such as myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism or presbyopia to obtain a good visual quality and to avoid depending on the use of glasses or contact lenses.

  • Desprendimiento de retina

    Retinal detachment

    In most cases, the vision can be recovered after a surgery for retinal detachment: But if it is not treated, the patient’s vision could be irrevocably lost.

  • What is secondary cataract?

    Secondary cataract

    Secondary cataract or after-cataract is an opacification of the posterior capsule of the lens that may appear after having undergone a cataract extraction.

  • revisión estrabismo

    Strabismus in childhood

    We speak of childhood strabismus when a child suffers an alteration in the alignment of the eyes that causes them not to look simultaneously at the same point. Strabismus can occur in adults too.

  • Il·lustració esquemàtica d'un mussol, una protuberància dolorosa a les parpelles.

    Stye. What is it and how is it treated?

    A stye is a small, red, painful lump on the eyelid that may contain pus. It is usually caused by an infection of the Meibomian or Zeiss glands and It can be found both on the inside and outside of the eyelid.

  • Thyroid Orbitopathy. What is it and how is it treated?

    Thyroid orbitopathy is an affectation of the periocular tissues that is associated with autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland, such as hyperthyroidism. This disease affects mostly adult women and is associated with smoking.

  • uveitis


    The term uveitis refers to a range of inflammatory conditions that affect the middle layer of the eye known as uvea. Different types of uveitis have different symptoms, causes and treatments.

  • Illustration representing a vitreous detachment.

    Vitreous detachment

    A vitreous detachment is the separation of the vitreiys humour from its attachment points on the retina. This causes a sudden appearance of spots in the form of spider webs and, in some cases, the vision of flashing lights.

  • vitreous hemorrhage

    Vitreous hemorrhage

    A vitreous hemorrhage is the presence of blood within the eye cavity that is filled with vitreous humor. The vitreous humor is a jelly-like, clear substance made up mostly of water that fills up to two thirds of the eyeball total volume.

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