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Age-related macular degeneration or ARMD is a disease that affects the central area of the retina, the macula. As its name suggests, it is a degenerative disease that progresses with age. What is age-related macular degeneration? Age-related macular degeneration affects the central area of the retina, the macula, and causes central vision problems, difficulty recognizing […]
What is allergic conjunctivitis? Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by a reaction to an allergen (any substance that produces an allergic reaction). Exposure of the eyes to these allergens releases a substance known as histamine which causes the blood vessels in the conjunctiva to become inflamed. Symptoms Allergic conjunctivitis can have […]
ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT… Amblyopia or lazy eye syndrome is caused by an insufficient development in visual ability in one eye during the first years of life. It might be caused by a strabismus, a high difference in refraction power between both eyes or by any cause that prevents the visual stimulus from properly […]
What is astigmatism? Astigmatism is a defect in the curvature of the cornea (the dome-like transparent structure which covers the iris and the pupil) or in the shape of the eye lens. Normally, the cornea and the lens are regular and are curved in the same shape throughout. This helps to focus light clearly onto […]
Blepharitis is an inflammation that occurs at the edge of the eyelids causing redness, peeling and swelling of the eyelids. In most cases, the glands located in the eyelids produce excess fat and this fat accumulates in a caseous manner, which causes an inflammation or favors the appearance of bacteria or even parasites.
Symptoms and signs Cataract symptoms consist of a slow and progressive visual loss, which usually occurs over months or years and affects one or both eyes. People with cataracts may experience glare, especially with headlights at night, as well as decreased color perception. The particular symptoms depend on the location and density of the opacity, […]
What is central serous chorioretinopathy? It is the fourth retinal disease that threats our vision. If you experience blurred vision, perception of a central spot, straight lines that seem bent or you have troubles in focusing when reading, you should go to the ophthalmologist in order to be diagnosed. It is more frequent in young men, […]
A chalation or chalazion is a benign pump or lump in the eyelid that does not cause pain and appears when secretions from the Meibomian glands accumulate due to a blockage in the drainage of the glands. In those cases the secretion is retained inside, which makes this nodule appear.
How can myopia affect children? Myopia is a refractive defect where the images are focused in front of the retina rather than on it, causing blurred vision. Unlike hyperopia, this defect takes place either because the eyeball is too long or, more rarely, because the optical strength of the cornea and the lens are larger than necessary . There are also […]
Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the inside part of the eyelids to the anterior part of the eye, up to the cornea. Common symptoms are redness, eye watering and also others, depending on the etiology (morning sticky eyes in infectious cases, enlarged lymph nodes in the viral cases, […]
What are corneal dystrophies? Corneal dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders most often found in the cornea (the clear front surface of the eye that lies directly in front of the iris and pupil and when it’s healthy, is like a transparent crystal). Fortunately, most of them are disorders without any visual consequence and […]
What is a corneal ulcer? A corneal ulcer is an open wound on the cornea, the structure that covers the iris and the pupil in a similar way to the crystal covers a watch face. Corneal ulcers are normally caused by eye infections, although extreme eye dryness or other eye disorders may also cause it. […]
CORNEAL LACERATION What is a corneal laceration? A corneal laceration is a cut in the cornea, usually caused by the contact of some sharp object with the eye. It can also be caused by the impact of an object with some force on the eye, like a metallic tool. For this reason, it is important […]
What is a dacryocystitis? Dacryocystitis is an inflammation usually caused by a lachrymal sac infection, arising from an obstruction of the tear duct. What are its symptoms? Pain, redness and edema at the level of the internal side of the lower eyelid (under the lachrymal sac), tearing, discharges, occasional or recurrent fever. What are its […]
What is diabetic retinopathy? Diabetic retinopathy is a vascular disease secondary to diabetes. Diabetes is a metabolic disease with a growing prevalence in our society that damages the small blood vessels of the retina due to the metabolic decompensation that it causes. The retina is a thin layer of light-sensitive tissue that lines the back […]
What is diplopia? Diplopia is a vision alteration consisting in the perception of double vision. Therefore, the patient usually goes to the consultation reporting the fact of seeing double. Double vision may be: horizontal, when overlapping images stand side by side; vertical, when images stand one on top of the other; or oblique, when images overlap […]
Dry eye or dry eye syndrome is a common eye disorder that occurs when there is a lack of lubrication and moistness of the eye surface (cornea, conjunctiva and tear film). This happens because the eye does not produce enough tears to maintain a good hydration or the tears are of poor quality. This syndrome, […]
What is an ectropion? An ectropion is an eyelid malposition consisting in the outward folding of the eyelid so it does not sufficiently rest on the eye, thus leaving it exposed and unprotected. Signs and symptoms Eye irritation, redness, tearing, photophobia and a foreign body sensation in the eye. Causes The most common cause is […]
La endoftalmitis es la presencia de una bacteria o un hongo intraocular que causa una infección de los fluidos intraoculares. Cualquier tipo de cirugía puede complicarse y provocar una endoftalmitis.
What is an entropion? An entropion is the inward folding of the eyelid, that makes the eyelashes rub against the cornea, thus leading to eye irritation and redness.
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT EYELID AND ORBITAL TUMORS IN A NUTSHELL… Eyelid tumors are those tumors that appear in the eyelids in the form of small injuries, pimples or lumps that usually don’t cause symptoms, although in some cases they may itch, sting or even bleed and produce scabs. Orbital tumors are those […]
ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT… Eyelid malpositions are defects in eyelid positionthat usually appear later in life. An eyelid rolled inward leads to an entropion, while an eyelid rolled outward causes an ectropion. Ectropion leaves the conjunctiva exposed, thus turning it red and potentially leading to its keratinization. Entropion makes eyelashes rub against the […]
What is glaucoma and how common is it? Glaucoma is a major disease given its frequency and potential seriousness. Approximately 1.5-2% of over 40s suffer from the condition and this rate increases with age. It is the second most common cause of blindness in this country. Nevertheless, this blindness can be avoided if diagnosed and […]
What is hyperopia? Hyperopia, hypermetropia or farsightedness in childhood appears as a refractive defect whereby the image is focused behind the retina, and vision is blurred. The cause may be in the eyeball or it may be because the optical power of the cornea and lens is less than necessary. There is also a certain […]
Hyperopia is a defect in the eye’s refraction that occurs when images are focused behind the retina and not directly on it, resulting in blurred or unclear vision at intermediate and close distances. Learn about its causes, diagnosis and treatment in ICR.
What is hypertensive retinopathy? Hypertensive retinopathy is a condition in which the blood vessels in the eye are damaged as a result of high blood pressure. This can affect blood flow to the retina, the lining at the back of the eye which acts like the film in a camera. If left untreated, this […]
What is infectious conjunctivitis? Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which is the mucous membrane that covers the inside of the eyelids. It normally affects both eyes at the same time, although it can sometimes begin in one eye and then transfer to the other after a day or two. The condition in such […]
Macular degenerations are retinal diseases of genetic origin that cause an early degeneration of the macula. It affects adults, young people or even children, it all depends on the severity of the damage caused by this genetic anomaly. The macula deteriorates and collapses affecting vision and causing a loss of vision that may be important […]
Keratoconus appears when the corneal tissue deteriorates, modifying its usual spherical shape by a cone shape. As the shape of the cornea is altered, the vision becomes distorted. The cornea is one of the most important parts of the eye. Light enters the eye through the cornea and it focuses the light rays so that […]
What is Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy? Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON), also known as Leber Optic Atrophy, was named after Doctor Theodore Leber, who described in 1871 a characteristic pattern of sudden vision loss in young men with family history of blindness. It is the most common hereditary optic neuropathy, it is caused by a […]
Symptoms Macular epiretinal membrane causes a slow and progressive visual loss lasting months or years, and affecting one or both eyes. Generally, it causes image distortion, and undulation of straight lines. Numbers and letters can appear to be in another line, and perception of colors may be decreased. Signs The typical sign is a semitransparent […]
Symptoms A macular hole causes loss of central vision and image distortion in the eye. The distortion is manifested as a bending or waviness of straight lines or objects can begin to look bent or wavy and numbers and letters jump out of line. Other symptoms manifested by patients are a central grey spot or […]
Myopia (also known as near-sightedness or short-sightedness) is a visual defect suffered by myopic or short-sighted people, who can clearly see close objects, but can’t properly focus far distance ones. The myopic eye focuses objects in front of the retina, and this is either caused by a relative increase of the eye length (axial myopia), which […]
What is an arterial or venous occlusion in the retina? Occlusions or obstructions of veins and arteries in the retina prevent the flow of blood through these vessels causing painless vision loss. A blocked artery will cause a lack of irrigation of the tissue of the retina, which will not receive adequate supply of oxygen […]
What is optic neuritis? Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optical nerve. This inflammation may be located at the nerve’s front side (papillitis) or at the rear side of it (retrobulbar optic neuritis). This is the optic nerve disease that most usually causes a sudden vision loss in young patients. Before venturing into optic […]
Orbital cellulitis is an infection of the tissues of the orbit which are located at the back of the orbital septum. It can affect the eyelid, cheeks and eyebrows. The infection can be caused by local injuries (insect bites or penetrating eye injuries) or by the spread of contiguous facial infections. This infection can become […]
Palpebral ptosis is the dropping of the upper eyelid and is one of the most common oculoplastic problems. This anomalous position of the eyelid is usually caused by a dysfunction of the lifting muscle, either by degenerative or congenital causes, and can affect both adults and children.
Many people believe that cataracts only affect older people. However, children can also suffer them. Both the pediatrict cataract and the one that derives from aging, consist of a clounding of the natural crystalline lens of the eye, which can cause blurred vision and even blindness. In adults, cataracts usually appear many years after the […]
What is a pterygium? A pterygium is a red and white abnormal growth of the conjunctiva that invades the cornea, most frequently on the side which is closer to the nose, although it can also appear on the external side of the eye, and in both eyes. It is painless and symptoms vary depending on […]
What is a retinal detachment? The retina is a light sensitive eye layer located at the back of the eye. A retinal detachment is simply a separation of the retina from the wall of the eye to which it is normally attached. What are the risk factors for retinal detachment? Retinal detachment affects, […]
Secondary cataract or after-cataract is an opacification of the posterior capsule of the lens that may appear after a few months or years of having undergone a cataract extraction. This prevents the passage of light to the retina and leads to loss of vision. Up to 20% of patients who have undergone a cataract extraction […]
What is strabismus in childhood? It is an alteration of the alignment of the eyes (both eyes don’t look simultaneously at the same point). Ocular deviation can be horizontal (in or out) or can be vertical (up or down) and can appear at any age and for different reasons. The strabismus can be constants (all day) or variable (the […]
A stye is a small, red, painful lump on the eyelid that may contain pus. It is usually caused by obstruction and inflammation of the Meibomian glands located within the eyelid, but can also be caused by an inflammation of the Zeiss glands (sebaceous glands of the palpebral edge). It can be found both on the inside and outside of the eyelid.
Thyroid orbitopathy, also known as thyroid ophthalmopathy, is an affectation of the periocular tissues that is associated with autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland, such as hyperthyroidism. This disease affects mostly adult women and is associated with smoking.
What is uveitis? The term uveitis refers to a range of inflammatory conditions that affect the middle layer of the eye known as uvea. The anterior part of the uvea is called the iris, the coloured part of the eye that controls the light entering the eye. Behind the iris lies the ciliary body, a […]
What is vision correction surgery? Vision correction surgery, or refractive surgery, is a type of ophthalmology dedicated to the study and treatment of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and presbyopia. The main objective is to improve your eyesight in order to avoid being dependent spectacles or contact lenses. Different surgical techniques have evolved to correct ocular refraction […]
What is Vitreous detachment? If floaters are small, translucent and isolated, and provided they always have the same shape and pattern, there is nothing to worry about. Scheduling an ophthalmology examination is nonetheless recommended. If floaters appear abruptly and in a great number, sometimes in a manner described as a spider web that blocks part […]
What is a vitreous hemorrhage? Vitreous hemorrhage has variable symptoms depending on the amount of bleeding: vision of spots that are suspended in vision (floaters), blurred vision or complete and sudden loss of vision. It may be caused by multiple causes, such as eye traumas and even underlying conditions such as diabetic retinopathy. It is […]
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